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Potential Vorticity Perspective of the Genesis of a Tibetan Plateau Vortex in June 2016
吴国雄
At midnight on 27–28 June 2016, a Tibetan Plateau (TP) Vortex (TPV) generated over the western TP that subsequently caused a downstream record-breaking rainstorm and extremely severe natural disaster. Based on reanalysis data and satellite imagery, this study investigates the formation of this TPV from a potential vorticity (PV) perspective. Results show that, in late June 2016, a remarkable circulation anomaly occurred over the TP and its peripheral area, with easterly flow in the middle and lower troposphere developing in the subtropical zone, replacing the normal westerly flow there. Its forefront merged with the southwesterly flow from the west and penetrated and converged over the western TP where the surface was warmer than normal, forming a low-level jet and downward slantwise isentropic surfaces in-situ. When the air parcel slid down the slantwise isentropic surface, its vertical relative vorticity developed owing to slantwise vorticity development associated with PV restructuring. At the same time, the penetrating southwesterly flow brought abundant water vapor to the western TP and induced increasing sub-cloud entropy and air ascent there. Low-layer cloud formed and the cloud liquid water content increased. The strong latent heat that was released in association with the formation of cloud produced strong diabatic heating near 400 hPa at night and strong PV generation below. The normal diurnal variation was interrupted and the vortex was generated near the surface. These results demonstrate that, against a favorable circulation background, both adiabatic and diabatic PV processes are crucial for TPV genesis.